What is bluetooth?

Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard used for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances using UHF radio waves in the industrial, scientific and medical radio bands, from 2.402 GHz to 2.480 GHz, and building personal area networks. It is a specification (IEEE 802.15.1) for the use of low power radio communications to link phones, computers and other network devices over short distance without wires.

Just like every other wireless technology it requires a transmitter and receiver. The Bluetooth RF transceiver (or physical layer) operates in the unlicensed ISM band centered at 2.4 gigahertz (the same range of frequencies used by microwaves and Wi-Fi). The core system employs a frequency-hopping transceiver to combat interference and fading.

These devices are manager using topology names Star Topology (Piconet). These group of devices creates a network that may contain one master and upto seven active slaves. In this network a physical radio channel is shared among all the devices which are synchronized to a common clock and frequency-hopping pattern.  With master device providing the synchronization details.

Let’s say you want to wirelessly print a picture from your mobile phone to a nearby printer. In this case, you go to the picture on your phone and select print as an option for sending that picture. The phone would begin searching for devices in the area. The printer (the scanning device) would respond to the inquiry and, as a result, would appear on the phone as an available printing device. By responding, the printer is ready to accept the connection. When you select the Bluetooth wireless printer, the printing process kicks off by establishing connections at successively higher layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack that, in this case, control the printing function.

Like any successful technology, all of this complexity goes on without the user being aware of anything more than the task he or she is trying to complete, like connecting devices and talking hands-free or listening to high-quality stereo music on wireless headphones.



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